Case studies and best practices
This Policy Brief presents how processes of democratic local governance affect access to urban services in Asian cities, especially for marginalized groups. It is based on research in nine cities in five Asian countries (India, Indonesia, China, Vietnam and Pakistan) undertaken by a group of national research and training institutions and regional dialogues hosted and facilitated by East-West Center with the support of the Swedish International Center for Local Democracy (ICLD). The research identified two categories of exclusions present in many Asian cities: • Institutional inequality including housing, land and basic services, and structural inequality including barriers to participation of women in economic, social and political activities. • Inadequate opportunities for migrant, minorities, youth and elderly to lead a decent lifestyle.